Lecture Notes Chapter 1
All living things from multi-celled organisms to single cell organisms perform the same function:
Growth: This could be in cell size or number of cells. In multicellular organisms like humans or cats, the individual cells become specialized to perform specific jobs (function). This specialization is called differentiation.
Reproduction: Organisms reproduce. You had to come from somewhere. When organisms reproduce, they create subsequent generations of similar organisms.
Movement: Organisms are capable of movement, which may be internal (movement of blood, food, hormones, etc.) or external (moving through the environment).
Metabolism: All of the physical and chemical operations that are happening in the body. We create new cells, hormones, enzymes and other things. We also break things down in the body like food so we can have energy.
Anabolism: To build things up.
Catabolism: To break things down
When metabolism occurs, there is waste that is left over. We get rid of that waste through a process called excretion.
** Do all living things control the external environment Answer = NO
THE STUDY OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Anatomy is the study of internal and external structures and the physical relationship between body parts (The study of body parts and how they are attached).
Anatomy can be divided into two categories – Microscopic Anatomy and Gross Anatomy.
Microscopic Anatomy deals with very small structures that need magnification.
Microscopic Anatomy has two specialties – Cytology and Histology
Cytology is the study of cells
Histology is the study of tissue
Gross Anatomy deals with large structures that can be seen with the eye.
Gross Anatomy has three specialties – Surface anatomy, Regional anatomy and Systemic anatomy
Surface Anatomy refers to the study of what is on the surface and superficial markings.
Regional anatomy refers to the study of specific regions of the body, such as a ear, nose and throat specialist.
Systemic Anatomy refers to the study of organs that work together, such as the digestive system, the cardiovascular system etc.
Physiology: The study of how the parts work to keep you alive and keep your internal environment balanced. Physiology includes the physical and chemical processes that happen in the body.
Types of physiology: Human physiology, cell physiology, system physiology and pathophysiology.
Human physiology is the study of the how the body parts work to keep you alive. This included the physical and chemical processes.
Cell Physiology focuses on just the cell and what happens inside the cell. What is the job of the cell and what is the job of all the little parts inside the cell (the little parts inside the cell are called organelle)
Pathophysiology is the study of disease or malfunction of the body. Disease and disorder modify or change the body. A pathologist is a person that studies diseases and disorders.
LEVELS OF GRGANIZATION
In order to study something, one of the first things we do is observe organize. We do this in science and in our everyday lives – often times without even knowing it. One way of organizing is to go from very small to very big. When studying of anatomy and physiology we organize in the following way.
(From Small to Big)
Chemical/Molecular à Cellular à Tissue à Organ à Organ System à Organism
- *Chemical or Molecular: Single atom or Atoms stuck together (Molecular)
- Cellular: Cells (There are only about 200 different kinds of cells in the body)
- Tissue: Cells working together to do a job. (There are four types of tissue in the human body)
- Organ: Consists of two or more tissue types doing a specific job.
- Organ System: Organs working together
- Organism: Organ systems working together to make up the whole body. (Big)
- There are levels smaller than chemical and molecular, but we wont be going there.
ORGAN SYSTEMS (A brief overview)
Create a book.
There are 12 organ systems that make up the human organism
Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Male Reproductive, Female Reproductive
Integumentary System (Skin): Protects against environmental hazards; helps control body temperature.
Skeletal System: Provides support; protects tissues; stores minerals; forms blood
Muscular System: Allows for locomotion; provides support; produces heat
Nervous System: Directs immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems
Endocrine System (Hormones): Directs long-term changes in activities of other organ systems
Cardiovascular System: Transports cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases.
Lymphatic System: Defends against infection and disease; returns tissue fluid to the bloodstream
Respiratory System: Delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood
Digestive System: Processes food and absorbs nutrients
Urinary System: Eliminates excess water, salts, and waste products.
Male Reproductive System: Produces sex cells and hormones
Female Reproductive System: Produces sex cells and hormones
** It is important to note that nerves, hormones and target cells are associated with all organ systems.
Homeo = Unchanging
Stasis = Standing
Homeostasis: The bodies ability to maintain a stable internal environment.
Homeostatic Regulation: The small adjustments the body makes to maintain homeostasis. The way the human machine works to maintain a stable environment.
Homeostatic Regulation usually involves the following three parts.
1.) Receptor 2.) Control Center 3.) Effector
1.) Receptor: A part of the body that is sensitive to a particular change
2.) Control Center: Receives and processes the information from the receptor and sends a command to the effector. Most of the time, the control center is the brain.
3.) Effector: A part of the body that opposes or enhances the stimulus.
Negative Feedback Vs. Positive Feedback
Negative Feedback: When something inside the body is disrupted by a stimulus, and the effector works against the stimulus to bring the inside of the body back into balance.
Heater/Air Conditioner example (page 13)
Positive Feedback: When something inside the body is disrupted by a stimulus, and the effector works to enhance the stimulus to bring the inside of the body back into balance.
Blood Clotting example (page 14)
Other example of Positive Feedback = Contractions during labor.
THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY
To study Anatomy, we need to have words so we can communicate with each other. Words are important. We will be using words that have to do with Anatomical Position, Anatomical Direction, Section Anatomy, and Body Cavities.
Anatomical Position: Facing forward, hands off to the side, palms facing forward.
Supine: Facing up (laying on the back)
Prone: Facing down (Laying on the stomach)
Anatomical Direction: This refers to the direction on the body. Some terms are interchangeable. When we say the “right side” we are referring to the “right side” of the patient. When we say the “left side” we are referring to the “left side” of the patient.
Ventral: Belly side
Posterior: Back or behind
Dorsal: The Back
Medial: Toward the bodies center (longitudinal axis)
Lateral: Away from the center, off to the side (away from longitudinal axis)
Proximal: Towards the attached base.
For example the arm à the elbow is “proximal” to the hand. Can you do one for the leg and for the forearm?
Distal: Away from the attached base.
For example the arm à the hand is “distal” to the elbow. Can you do one for the leg and for the forearm?
Superficial: At or near the surface
Deep: Far in from the bodies surface
Section Anatomy: Cutting the body into pieces – three ways. Yikes…..!
Transvers: Like a guillotine, a cut separating the top of the body from the bottom. Viva la France….!
Frontal: Separates the front from the back, the long way.
Sagittal: Separates the right from the left, the long way.
Body Cavities: A cavity is a chamber or open space. A cavity in a tooth is a open space created by bacteria. We have lots of open spaces in our body where we will find organs and organ systems.
Cranial cavity: The space inside the skull where you find the brain.
What gland would you find inside the cranial cavity?
Spinal Cavity: The space inside the backbone (vertebrae)
What would you find living inside the spinal cavity?
Thoracic cavity: The chest cavity.
Can you list three organs would you find in the thoracic cavity?
Abdominal cavity: Just below the thoracic cavity. Lots of organs live in the abdominal cavity?
How many organs can you list that are found inside the abdominal cavity?
** The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
See Diaphragm demonstration.