Biology Lesson – Immune System

Immune System and HIV

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Click on text version (scroll through each page to find answers).

1.  What is the enemy?

2.  What will it do when it enters a healthy host cell?

3.  What does the macrophage do?

4.  Once the helper T cell recognizes the virus fragments on the macrophage’s surface, what happens?

5.  The chemicals released by the macrophage and helper T cells stimulate the production of what three things?

6.  What is the job of the killer T cells?

7.  The helper T cells stimulate the production of _____ cells, which produce millions of ___________________.

8.  Antibodies are very _______________ about what they attack.

9.  a.  Attached antibodies acted as __________ that say, “Here’s on!”  b.  Here’s one of what?

10.  Macrophages consume the viruses flagged with a __ __ __ b __ __ __ __ __.

11.  How do the antibodies help the macrophages?

12.  What do complements do?

13.  After the battle, the numbers of ____________, _________________, _________________, ________________. and ___________________ decrease dramatically.  What remains, though, are _________________ and ________________.  If the virus ever enters the body again, these will quickly move into action and most likely wipe out the invader before it ever gains a stronghold.

14.  What part of the immune system exhausts itself?  What happens?

16.  How does HIV get into the host cell?

17.  Explain why non-progressors stay healthy despite being HIV positive?

Click on Viral Gene Transfer.

18.  During transcription, DNA is copied into RNA?  Is this what HIV does?  Explain.

Click on Viral exit.

19.  Why do the host cells die after thousands of HIV replicate and infect host cells?

Click on AIDS in Perspective at the bottom of the page.

20.  Use the map to find out how many people are infected with HIV and AIDS in:

a.  North America?    b.  Latin America?   c.  Sub-Saharan Africa?   d.  East Asia and Pacific?

21.  How many people have been infected by HIV since the epidemic began?

22.  What percent of HIV-infected people live in the developing world?

Click on Search for a Vaccine at the bottom of the page.  According to Dr. Baltimore:

23.  There are more people dying of AIDS than almost any other infectious disease, with __________________ and ________________ being in the same ballpark.

24.  HIV is not native to the human species, and therefore it is continually ______________ in an effort to adapt.  Does this mean it always stays the same or is it always changing?

Biology Lesson – Reproduction and Gender

Reproduction and Gender Lesson

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1.      Two _____ chromosomes in the nucleus of the original egg cell will cause an embryo to be a female, and a _____ and an ______ chromosome will determine a male.

Click on How Is Sex Determined? (Flash version)

2.      What are gonads?  Click on > next

3.      A sperm cell may contain either an _____ chromosome or a _____ chromosome.  Click on the little red star:*

4.      What happens if the Y chromosome is missing the SRY gene? Click on > next

5.      How big is the embryo at three weeks old? Click on > next

6.      From week 5 until week 7, the genital ridge is similar in _____  _________ _____ ________________. Click on > next

7.      What will primitive germ cells become later? Click on > next:  male

8.      What will happen if the SRY gene is turned on? Click on > back; Click on > next: female

9.      In week 8, what are beginning to form in the female embryo? Click on > next

10.  During week 9, the labioscrotal area does fuse in the male embryo…..true…..false

11.  The Mullerian ducts will later differentiate into the __________, the upper vagina and the _____________. Click on > next

12.  a.  How many follicles exist at birth? 

  1. These remaining follicles will enlarge to form the primitive ______ cells.
  2. Are any new egg cells produced after birth?   Click on the blue dot on the bottom of the screen marked 8 for the Male.

13.  Testosterone will cause the external genitalia to develop into a ___________. Click on > next

14.  During week 9, the labioscrotal area will fuse to form the _________. Click on > next

15.  After puberty, the testes will produce ________ _______________ sperm daily.

16.  One out of every _______ births result in tiny errors during the stages of fetal sex differentiation. 

17.  Read through the different conditions.  Choose 4 to write about.  Describe the genetic and/or chemical basis of the condition and the symptoms (how it affects the body). 

Biology Lesson – Nutrition, Digestion, and Excretion

Do the following questions on Nutrition, Digestion, and Excretion:

Nutrition Label Go to

1. When looking at the serving size, it is important to compare it to what?

2. If you eat the whole package of macaroni and cheese, you should multiply all of the nutrient numbers on the label by ______.

3. If you eat a food with 110 Calories from fat, and it has 250 total Calories, that means that _________ of the calories come from fat. BEWARE OF ANY FOOD WHERE MORE THAN ONE-THIRD (33%) COME FROM FAT!!

4. Eating too many calories per day is linked to being _____________ and ____________.

5. List five things that can lead to heart disease, some cancers, or high blood pressure.

6. It is very important to keep your intake of __________________ fat, ________ fats, and _______________ as low as possible to have a good balanced diet.

7. List five nutrients that many Americans do not get enough of in their diet.

8. Getting enough calcium can reduce the risk of ___________________, where bones become brittle and break as one ages.

9. What does %DV stand for?

10. Your total fat for the whole day should be less than _________% DV.

11. Thinking question: Let’s say you find a candy bar that says it has 50% DV of saturated fat. Is it a good idea (in terms of nutrition) to eat the whole candy bar? Explain

12. When looking at %DV, what is the general guide to help you know if it’s low or high?

13. If you eat the whole package of macaroni and cheese, is this a good idea in terms of your daily fat intake?

 Explain Click on Comparison Example #1

14. The labels show two kinds of milk- one is “Reduced Fat,” the other is chocolate “Nonfat” milk. Each serving size is one cup. Which has more calories? Which is higher in fat and saturated fat?

Click on Comparison Example #2

15. The labels show two kinds of milk- one is “Reduced Fat,” the other is chocolate “Nonfat” milk. Each serving size is one cup. Which has more calcium?

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16. What is the purpose of the excretory system.

17. What are the primary organs of excretion?

18. Lungs get rid of waste _________.

19. Dead cells and sweat are removed from the body through the _______, which is part of the ___________________ system.

20. Liquid waste is removed from the body through the _____________.

21. The kidneys filter out unwanted _________, minerals, and a nitrogen-rich molecule called ________; these wastes form a liquid called ___________.

22. If your kidneays are severely diseased, your blood needs to be filtered through the process of d__ __ __ __ s __ s.

23. Healthy people can live comfortable with only one kidney ……..true…….false. Go to

24. Kidneys receive ____-____% of the total arterial blood pumped by the heart.

25. Each kidney contains from one to two million ___________.

26. In the nephron, the Bowman’s capsule is surrounded by the glomerulus, which is a ________________ network.

27. The nephron makes urine by doing what three steps?

28. Scroll down to the table on the web site. Urine contains 1.8 g/100 ml of ________. Urine should not contain any __________, __________ ________, or proteins.

29. When you are severely dehydrated, the pituitary gland will produce ___ ___ ___. This will cause your urine to have an extremely high concentration of ________ – as much as ________ times that of the blood.

30. Diabetes insipidus is characterized by what two symptoms?

31. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by mutant genes or insufficient secretion of __ __ __.

Digestive System Do your own research, either from your textbook and/or the internet, to answer the following:

32. What types of molecules get digested in the stomach? 33. What types of molecules get digested in the small intestine?

34. How do the digested food molecules get absorbed by the small intestine? – draw a diagram to show capillaries and microvilli to explain this!!

Biology Lesson – Circulatory & Respiratory Systems


Answer the following questions in the front of your notebook.  You do NOT need to copy the questions.


Go to:

Click on Launch Interactive.  Click Track. Click Step Thru.

1.      Oxygen-poor blood goes from the body into the __________ ______________.

2.      The right ventricle pumps the blood to the ____________, where the blood releases waste gases and picks up __________________.

3.      The ______________ _________________ pumps the oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body.

4.      Which chambers are on the top of the heart?  Atria or ventricles?

5.      Which chambers are on the bottom of the heart?  Atria or ventricles?

At the bottom, click on the FACTS link. 

6.      Where is the heart located in the chest?

7.      How big is your heart as compared to your fist?

8.      Which muscles work harder, your leg muscles when you are sprinting or your heart when it’s pumping?

9.      How big is a capillary as compared to a human hair?

10.  How far does your blood travel in one day?

Go to

11.  Find the photograph of the “coronary artery affected by atherosclerosis.” 

a.        What 4 things make up the plaque that is blocking the artery?

b.        Do some research on the internet to find out what causes atherosclerosis in humans.

12.  Go back to the above site.  Find the photograph under the one from #11.  The heart attack was caused by heart muscle that was deprived of _________________.

Go to:

13. The body’s circulatory system really has three distinct parts: _____________________,   _____________________, _____________________  . 

Click on pulmonary circulation

14.  Pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood from the heart, to the                   , and back to the heart again.

Click on circulatory system.  Click on systemic circulation.

15.  Systemic circulation supplies nourishment to ____________________________________, with the exception of the heart and lungs because they have their own systems.

During systemic circulation, blood passes through the _______________.  This phase of systemic circulation is known as renal circulation. During this phase, the kidneys filter much of the ___________ from the blood. Blood also passes through the small intestine during systemic circulation. This phase is known as portal circulation. During this phase, the blood from the small intestine collects in the portal vein which passes through the liver. The liver filters _____________ from the blood, storing them for later.

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16. List 3 diseases and 8 other effects of smoking.

17. Why is it difficult to quit smoking?

18. List 3 ill (bad) effects of secondhand smoke on adults and children.

19. What are the ill (bad) effects of chewing tobacco.

Click on What’s In A Cigarette?

20. List four chemicals in cigarettes.  Do research on the internet to find out why they are bad for your health.

Click on Peer Pressure

21. List three things you can say instead of “no” when someone pressures you to smoke.

Go to

22. Describe the difference between healthy lung tissue, lungs with emphysema, and diseased lung tissue.

Biology Lesson – Nervous System

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Write the answers in your notebook.  You do NOT need to copy the questions.

1.  The nervous system is divided into the ________________ nervous system and the __________________ nervous system.

2.  a.  The central nervous system is divided into two parts:  the ___________ and the _____________  ____________.  The brain has about 100 _______________ nerve cells (neurons) and __________________ of “support cells” called glia.

b.  Click on  nerve cells (neurons) .  Scroll down until you find “Pseudounipolar cells.”  True or False:  All neurons will have only one axon.

c.  What is the difference between sensory neurons and motor neurons?

Click Back.

3.  The brain to body ratio of humans is ________ times greater than that of the stegosaurus (a type of dinosaur).

4. a.  The peripheral nervous system is divided into two major parts:  the ___________ nervous system and the ______________ nervous system.

b.  The somatic nervous system sends sensory information to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and motor nerve fibers that go to _______________ muscle.

c.  Copy the picture of the Central Nervous System (Brain/Spinal Cord, cell body, axon, effector (muscle)).

d.  The autonomic nervous system controls ______________   _______________ of the viscera (_______________  _____________) and glands.

e.  What is one difference between the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system?

f.  The enteric nervous system has neurons that connect to the viscera (gastrointestinal tract, _____________, _______________).

5.  Looking at the table titled “Divisions of the Nervous System,” does the cerebellum belong to the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system?  The cerebellum is in what part of the brain?   m____encephalon

6. a.  The brain is divided into two halves, called ________________.  Each hemisphere communicates with the other through the ___________   _______________.  Click here.

b. Make a simple drawing of the corpus collosum (in green).

Click here.

7. a.  Scroll down to Brain Structures.  Which part of the brain is responsible for movement, balance, and posture?

b.  Which part of the brain is responsible for your emotions?

c.  Which part of the brain is responsible for memory and learning?

d.  The midbrain has what four functions?

e.  The cerebral cortex has what five functions?

f.  The brain stem has what three functions?  Where is the brain stem located?

g.  What are the five functions of the hypothalamus?  The hypothalamus is the size of only a ________.

8.  Scroll down to the yellow picture of the brain.  Copy this picture in your notebook, including all 8 labels.

Environmental Science Lesson – Population Issues

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Click on the links to answer the questions:

Out of House and Home

1.  Easter Island is found in the South __________.

2.  What began soon after the Rapanui arrived and was largely over by 1600?

3.  List 6 birds that went extinct.

4.  How did the rats affect a “comeback”

5.  When was the last moai erected?

6.  What are the “chillingly obvious” parallels between Easter Island and our entire planet today?

Population Campaigns

7.  Describe each country’s (China’s, India’s, and Kenya’s) tactics (either intentional or not) at slowing population growth.

8.  Which tactics have been most successful and why?

9.  Which tactics are most controversial and why?

Voices of Concern

10.  Describe the predicted negative trends in a) Japan and Europe, b) China and India, c) Africa.

11.  How will an improvement in women’s status in India help with the population problem (the Population Campaigns link will help with this).

Material World

12.  Which country has the largest population?

13.  Which country will be doubled the fastest?

14.  Which country has the highest fertility rate?

15.  Which country has the greatest rural percentage?

16.  Which country uses the most energy per capita?

17.  Which has the highest infant mortality?

18.  Which has the highest female illiteracy?

19.  Where would you most like to live and why?

20.  Where would you least like to live and why?

Human Numbers
Through Time

21.  Describe 5 events/trends/diseases/advances in the last 2000 years that have either greatly increased or decreased human population growth.

22.  a.  Where will most of the population growth occur in the future?

b.  What challenges will these countries face?

Global Trends Quiz

23.  Do Population Trends in the Developed World #’s #1, 2, 6, 7.  Copy the questions, and click on the Answers link to get the right answers.

You will find answers to the following questions in the Answers section of the website:

24.  Why is “replacement-level fertility” 2.1 and not 2.0?

25.  In your opinion, why is there such a drastic difference in the life expectancy of a woman in Japan (84) vs. Kenya (46)?

26.  What will the payroll tax rate be in Japan and Italy in 2030?  Why will it need to be so high?

27.  Why doesn’t the U.S. face dramatic population declines confronting other nations?

28.  Do Population Trends in the Developing World #’s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 8.  Copy the questions, and click on the Answers link to get the right answers.

You will find answers to the following questions in the Answers section of the website:

29.  The sharp increase in life expectancy throughout the developing world in the mid-20th century gave rise to the _____________________   ________________ of the latter half of the century.

30.  Why haven’t populations decreased despite decreases in fertility rates in many countries?

31.  Less than _______ percent of married women in sub-Saharan Africa use modern contraceptive methods.  In some developing nations, such as Brazil and Thailand, contraceptive use nears ______ percent, largely due to government funding of ____________  _____________ services.

32.  Urbanization will create a host of ________________________ problems, since consumption patterns will increasingly mirror those in the developed world.

33.  Do The Environmental Challenge #’s 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9.  Copy the questions, and click on the Answers link to get the right answers.

You will find answers to the following questions in the Answers section of the website:

34.  List 3 things that we consume (part of our high levels of consumption) in the developed world.

35.  Why does our consumption in the developed world affect environments in the less developed world?

36.  Water scarcity may become a cause of ________________________   ______________, especially in water-scarce regions like the ____________   _________  and ____________   ______________.

37.  Roughly ______ million people are undernourished in the developed world, but _______ million people are undernourished in the developing world.

38.  Some estimates of carrying capacity are:  ____ to ___ billion people living in prosperity to ____ billion people fed on minimum rations.  Both population and consumption are almost certain to rist, but hopefully new _________________ will be developed and adopted that allow us to live sustainably.

Earth in Peril

39.  Which four countries have the highest population densities?

40.  The costs of greater urbanization include a) consumption of vast amounts of _________, b) ____ pollution, and c) _________ pollution.

41.  In the future, we may be able to replenish water tables with new water-saving _______________ methods, ______________________ crops that require less water, __________________ harvesting, and ____________  ______________________ campaigns.

42.  Which four countries are the greatest polluters (of carbon-based greenhouse gases)?

43.  Almost _____ of the forests that once covered Earth have disappeared, mostly due to aggressive ______________ and agricultural ____________.  It is estimated that nearly ______ percent of the world’s remaining forests are endangered.

44.  Scientists predict that more than _______ of the world’s coral reefs may be gone by the year _______, thereby causing the extinction of ______________ of animal species and the disappearance of many __________ whose shorelines are protected by reefs.

Biology Lesson – Etosha Africa Park

Etosha African Park Lesson

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1. In the example on the web site, the cheetah is the __________________ and the zebra is the _________.

2. What does a food chain explain?

3. Every living thing in a food chain is either a _____________ or a _________.

4. How do producers obtain energy?

5. How do consumers get energy?

Click Back. Click on THE HUNT IS ON.

6. The cheetah leaves the ground twice when it is running – once with its legs completely _______________, then with its legs tightly ________ beneath its body. How can the cheetah do this?

7. How does a tail aid the cheetah?

8. If one jackal closes in on a springbok, the other jackals ________________ their animals and focus instead on the single _______.

Click Back. Click on WHAT’S FOR DINNER.

9. What is the word for plant-eating animals?

10. List three herbivores in Etosha.

11. The zebra’s feces help ________________ the ground and causes new grass to grow.

12. The dead zebra can feed jackals or _____________. Dead flesh is called ______________.

13. The bones of the zebra get broken down by ______________.

14. Only the largest plant-eating consumers, such as __________ and _____________, avoid becoming prey for predators, though young animals of both species are sometimes victims of large __________.

Click Back. Click on ANTHRAX.

15. What causes Anthrax?

16. How do animals get the disease?

17. What do elephants do to protect themselves from the heat and to ward off insects?

18. Elephants sometimes eat anthrax, which can lay ___________ in the dust for a long time.

Go to

19. When gravel roads were constructed to reach Etosha National Park, large gravel pits were dug close to the routes. These pits filled with ___________, and the water became alkaline (opposite of acidic) due to the _____________ _________ present. Anthrax thrives under _______________ conditions, and many herbivores died.

20. Describe what happened to the wildebeest, zebra, and lion populations as a result of the anthrax.

Click on More.

21. Why are young male lions expelled from their birth pride?

22. Why did the lion population drop from 500 to 240?

23. A cooperative relationship between park wardens and the __________ is essential.

24. Many lions have FIV, or ______________ _______________________ ____________, which is similar to HIV in humans. Etosha’s lions may be used to restock lions in the Serengeti, where ______ percent of lions have FIV.

Click on More.

25. Since wild dogs are profoundly ___________ in their behavior, efforts to re-introduce them have resulted in the dogs dying either from ___________ or falling prey to _________.

26. Poaching is a threat to the rhinoceros and the elephant. People take the horns from the rhinoceros, which deprives a rhinoceros of its natural _______________, so it becomes defenseless to _______ attacks.

27. Write a paragraph (at least 3 sentences) describing what you learned from the Etosha web site today.

Biology Lesson – Global Warming

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  1. What is the greenhouse effect?
  2. What would the temperature of the Earth be without a natural greenhouse effect?
  3. Are greenhouse gases increasing?
  4. Click on the link “420,000 years” – it shows a graph. Describe the trend in the graph (throughout Earth’s history, from 400,000 years ago until the present, the Carbon dioxide, methane, and temperature levels have….”
  5. According to the information to the right of the graph, what is the present, post-industrial atmospheric level of CO2 is around ______ ppmv, which on the graph would be off the ___________.
  6. Is there any scientific debate about whether or not human activity as been increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
  7. By how many degrees has the climate warmed over the last 25 years?
  8. Click on the link Global surface temperatures.  Describe the trend in the graph from 1880 until
  9. Why does the human-enhanced greenhouse effect cause cooling in higher parts of the atmosphere?
  10. There are other, indirect indicators of global warming such as boring a hole in the ground and taking the ground temperature, measuring how much land is covered with snow, and recording how much the _____________ have receded (______________ recession). 
  11. El Ninos are not related to global warming, because they have been present for _______________ or maybe _______________ of years.  However, global warming may enhance El Ninos, and El Ninos have been more ______________ and ______________ in recent decades. 
  12. Is the climate becoming more variable or extreme on a global scale?  On regional scales? 

Go to

13. How does an actual greenhouse (for plants) work?

14. Copy the diagram of the Earth’s Greenhouse Effect (including labels!!)

Biology Lesson – Riddle of the Bones

Evolution Lessons – Riddle of the Bones

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  1. Lucy and other fossils reveal that more than 3 million years ago, a human ancestor walked upright …………true……..false
  2. What two kinds of evidence show that Australopithecus afarensis walked upright?
  3. What parts of the fossilized body reveals how old the person was at death?
  4. Lucy’s species is sexually dimorphic.  What does that mean?
  5. What were the average heights for males and females of Australopithecus afarensis?
  6. Which living thing does our human ancestor, Australopithecus afarensis, most closely resemble?
  7. Which was the most critical find in determining whether or not the fossils found at Laetoli and Hadar belonged to the same species?
  8. How many million years ago did
    1. the First Family live?
    2. the Hadar skull exist?
    3. Lucy live?
    4. Laetoli footprints get left in the volcanic ash?

Go to

  1. A significant advance in flying ability came with the evolution of the ________.
  2. What is an alula?
  3. What is the oldest-known bird fossil?
  4. List 2 features of Archaeopteryx that are like those of a dinosaur, and 2 features that are like those of birds.
  5. What is a therapod?
  6. List three bird characteristics that were present in therapods before birds evolved.
  7. Feathers evolved in therapods before birds……..true……..false.
  8. What are two possible functions of early feathers?
  9. Most of the bird lineages that arose during the Cretaceous period ______  _____, but some of them survived and evolved into the birds of today.

Biology Lesson – Mass Extinctions

Evolution Lesson – Mass Extinctions and Deep Time

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Click on the green triangles, blue circles, and yellow squares on the timeline to find the answers.  You do NOT need to copy the questions.
1.  a.  What happened 4,550 mya (million years ago)?
b.  Our solar system was formed from __________________ dust.
2.  What kind of bombardment started 4,500 mya and lasted 500 million years?
3.  What were formed 4,200 mya?¦lt;br /> 4.  Volcanic rock in Greenland has minerals with telltale signs of past biological activity:  Carbon _____________ ratios that occur only if living things are present.  These rocks are __________ mya.
5.  There is evidence that Photosynthesizing bacteria started to increase (because they grow _____________ and reproduce _____________ than their competitors) _________ mya.
6.  The oldest fossils are from __________ mya.  These fossils are found in dense mats called ___________________, where photosynthesizing bacteria lived on the top, and _________   _______________ lived below.
7.  The first small _______________ were not formed until 3,400 mya.
8.  Scientists found traces of oil in rocks from __________ mya; these oils are found only in __________________, not bacteria.
9.  1,900 mya oxygen levels in the atmosphere reached ___________ percent.
10.  The oldest fossil evidence of multicellular animals are the fossils of _________________ creatures that lived ________ mya.
11.  The oldest __________________ fossils are from 540 mya.
12. The first chordates, or animals with a _____________, evolved ________ mya.
13.  a.  The first mass extinction happened ________ mya; ______ – ______ percent of marine genera (kinds of living things) became extinct.
b.  The second mass extinction happened ________mya; _______ percent of marine invertebrate families and ______ percent of genera go extinct.
c.  The third mass extinction happened ________ mya; 50-55 percent of marine invertebrate genera and ______-______ percent of species go extinct.¦lt;br /> d.  the fourth mass extinction happened ________ mya; 90 % of all species went extinct!!!
14.  The Cambrian explosion happened 530 mya.  Describe the Cambrian explosion.
15.  When did the first land plants appear?
16.  When did the first fishes appear?
17.  Which group of animals were the first to adapt to live on land?
18.  _________ mya amphibians were the first four-legged animals on land.
19.  280 mya, ______________ supercontinent formed.  North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, etc. were all together in one continent…………………true…….false

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