May 11, 2009
Internet: Fungi and Protists
1. Fungi have many important roles:
a. They __________ __________ dead organic material.
b. Most plants could not grow without symbiotic fungi, or ____________________, living with the plants’ ________ and supplying nutrients to the plant.
c. We get drugs, such as _______________, from fungi.
d. We eat fungi, such as mushrooms, ___________, and ___________.
e. Yeast, a type of fungi, make the bubbles in ____________, champagne, and beer.
2. Some fungi also cause some diseases in humans, such as _________________ and _________________ ______________.
3. Why are fungal diseases very difficult to treat?
4. List 3 fungal diseases that affect plants.
Scroll down to the 8th paragraph.
5.Scientists give living things scientific names, because a) not all living things have a ______________ name; and b) scientific names precisely describe a living things in a manner that is not affected by __________ or the ___________ language of the scientist.
6. Look at the picture of the mushroom.
a. What is the scientific name of this fungus? B__________ e___________.
b. What is the common name of this fungus here in the U.S.?
7. Fungi are immobile. In order to extend their range (live in new places), they can either grow into an adjoining area, or ________________ spores.
8. Fungi shoot their spores into the ________ or use animals or water to carry their spores. Spores of a wheat rust (a type of fungi) have traveled ____________ miles (_________ km) by the wind.
9. The giant puffball makes _______________ of spores so that there is a chance of a spore landing in a good habitat. However, the spores do not travel very far; nearly all the spores (______%) land within ________ feet (________ m) of their parent.
10. Truffles use animals to disperse their spores. They have an aroma which attracts ____________. The animals eat the truffles, the spores pass through the animals, and they land in the animals’ feces some _______________ from the parent truffle.
11. Some cup fungi, called the Asco_____________, “shoot” their __________ through the boundary layer into the w __ __ d.
Scroll down to the 5th paragraph.
12. If fungi and bacteria did not decompose dead plants, the ___________ in dead organic matter would remain locked up. Plant growth would _____________ over time as the nitrogen the plants took from the soil was not replaced. This would be a catastrophe, because plant growth supplies all of our ________.
Scroll down the the 8th parapgrah.
13. A forest the size of a soccer field would be covered with _____ tons of dead organic matter if there were no bacteria or fungi to decompose the dead plants.
14. A lichen is a partnership (mutualistic symbiosis) between a ____________ and an _______ or _________________.
15. The alga makes food and vitamins for the _____________, and the fungus protects the alga from ____________ out.
16. Copy the picture “Cross Section of Lichen” in your notebook.
17. In nature, malaria parasites spread by infecting successively two types of hosts: ___________ and female Anopheles _______________. In humans, the parasites grow and multiply first in the _________ cells and then in the red cells of the blood. In the blood, successive broods of parasites grow inside the red cells and ___________ them, releasing daughter parasites (“merozoites”) that continue the cycle by ______________ other _____ cells.
Scroll down to Statistics.
18. Malaria is the second leading cause of death from infectious diseases in Africa, after _____/______.
19. In 2008, between _____ and _____ million clinical episodes of malaria occurred.
20. Between __________ and ___________ deaths occurred in 2008 due to malaria.
21. More than 89% of the malaria deaths worldwide occur in _____________.
Look at the Geography section.
22. Malaria affects people in places such as Central _____________, South ______________, Central Af __ __ __ __, India, and parts of Southeast A __ __ __.
Scroll down to watch the Animated life-cycle of Plasmodium.
23. At first the Plasmodium parasite invades the ___________ cells. Later, the parasite invades the _________ ______________ cells.
10 points EXTRA CREDIT: Independent Research. DO THIS ON SEPARATE PAPER.
Describe the politics behind the epidemic of malaria. How are drug companies involved? What are the barriers to giving people the care, bednets, medicine, etc. that they need?
Cite your sources (website url’s).